Normally printf() should work. E.g. below is the output from the “Hello, World” sample project created by VisualGDB with no further modifications:
If you don’t see the green “cpu_start” text, your program might not be launching properly. We actually have a detailed tutorial on diagnosing ESP32 startup issues here: https://visualgdb.com/tutorials/esp32/flashdiag/. Please feel free to follow it and let us know if you have any further questions.